Lima was bracing for a new rally against Peruvian President Dina Boluarte on Monday as thousands of demonstrators began mobilizing in the capital following weeks of deadly unrest.
Protesters from all over the country began heading to Lima over the weekend in a bid to maintain the pressure on authorities, even as a state of emergency war declared in a bid to maintain order.
At least 42 people have died in five weeks of clashes between protesters and security forces, according to Peru's human rights ombudsman.
Supporters of ousted president Pedro Castillo - who was arrested and charged with rebellion amongst other offenses after trying last month to dissolve parliament and rule by decree - have set up burning roadblocks, attempted to storm airports and staged mass rallies.
A woman looks at pictures of people killed in protests against President Dina Boluarte, during a memorial at the San Juan Catholic church in Puno, Peru, Jan. 15, 2023.
They are demanding Boluarte's resignation, the closure of Congress and fresh elections.
'We're going to be in the capital to make our protest voice heard,' Jimmy Mamani, an Aymara indigenous leader from Puno region, told AFP.
Mamani, the mayor of a small village near the border with Bolivia, said peasants from all over Peru had arranged to meet up in Lima for a 'peaceful' demonstration.
Protesters are set to defy a state of emergency in the capital.
'It's not right that the executive cannot listen to our demands, they turn a deaf ear,' added Mamani, who ruled out dialogue with authorities.
At least 3,000 protesters from Andahuaylas in southeastern Peru were heading for Lima on Monday in a caravan of trucks and buses.
Andean people from Chumbivilcas take part in a protest against the government of Peruvian President Dina Boluarte in Cusco, Peru, Jan. 16, 2023.
In Cusco province, dozens of peasants were organizing themselves to leave for the capital.
The government extended by 30 days a state of emergency from midnight Saturday for Lima, Cusco, Callao and Puno, authorizing the military to back up police actions to restore public order.
The order also suspended constitutional rights such as freedom of movement and assembly, according to a decree published in the official gazette.
In protest epicenter Puno, the government declared a new night-time curfew for 10 days, from 8:00 p.m. to 4:00 a.m.
Almost 100 stretches of road remained blockaded Sunday in 10 of Peru's 25 regions - a record, according to a senior land transport official.
Members of Aymara communities hold a blockade on the Ilave International Bridge to protest the government of Peruvian President Dina Boluarte in Ilave, Puno, Peru, Jan. 16, 2023.
Castillo, a former rural school teacher and union leader, faced vehement opposition from Congress during his 18 months in office and is the subject of numerous criminal investigations into allegations of widespread graft.
His December 7 ouster sparked immediate nationwide protests, mainly among the rural poor.
In the run-up to Monday's demonstrations, attitudes among both protesters and government officials appeared to harden.
'We ask that Dina Boluarte resign as president and that Congress be shut down. We don't want any more deaths,' Jasmin Reinoso, a 25-year-old nurse from Ayacucho, told AFP.
Prime Minister Alberto Otarola called for protesters to 'radically change' their tactics and opt for dialogue.
Protesters demand the resignation of Peru's President Dina Boluarte and the closure of Congress, in a residential area in Lima, Jan. 15, 2023.
'There is a small group organized and paid for by drug trafficking and illegal mining that wants to take power by force,' Otarola said on local television.
Defense Minister Jorge Chavez said the government would do everything in its power 'to avoid a violent situation' in Lima.
But he also pleaded with protesters to demonstrate 'peacefully without generating violence.'
An Ipsos poll published Sunday said Boluarte had a 71 percent disapproval rating.
The unrest has been largely concentrated in the southern Andes, where Quechua and Aymara communities live.
The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights has said that in order to end the crisis, these groups need to be better integrated into Peruvian society.
Peru has been politically unstable for years, with 60-year-old Boluarte the country's sixth president in five years.
Castillo has been remanded in custody for 18 months, charged with rebellion and other crimes.
Authorities insist radical groups are behind the protests, including remnants of the Shining Path communist guerrilla group.
As proof, they have presented the capture this week of a former member of that organization, Rocio Leandro, whom the police accuse of having financed some of the unrest.